What is Parkinson's Disease?
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What is Parkinson's Disease?
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anitha
5 years ago

What is Parkinson's Disease?

Parkinson's disease (PD) belongs to a group of conditions called motor system disorders, which are the result of the loss of dopamine-producing brain cells. The four primary symptoms of PD are tremor, or trembling in hands,arms, legs, jaw, and face; rigidity, or stiffness of the limbs and trunk; bradykinesia, or slowness of movement; and postural instability, or impaired balance and coordination.

As these symptoms become more pronounced, patients may have difficulty walking, talking, or completing other simple tasks. PD usually affects people over the ageof 50. Early symptoms of PD are subtle and occur gradually. In some people the disease progresses more quickly than in others.
As the disease progresses, the shaking, or tremor, which affects the majorityof PD patients may begin to interfere with daily activities. Other symptoms may include depression and other emotional changes; difficulty in swallowing, chewing, and speaking; urinary problems or constipation; skin problems; and sleep disruptions. There are currently no blood or laboratory tests that have been proven to help in diagnosing sporadic PD. Therefore the diagnosis is based on medical history and a neurological examination. The disease can be difficult to diagnose accurately. Doctors may sometimes request brain scans or laboratory tests in order to rule out other diseases.

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anitha
5 years ago
Is there any treatment?

At present, there is no cure for PD,but a variety of medications provide dramatic relief from the symptoms. Usually, patients are given levodopa combined with carbidopa. Carbidopa delays the conversion of levodopa into dopamine until it reaches the brain. Nerve cells can use levodopa to make dopamine and replenish the brain's dwindling supply. Although levodopa helps at least three-quarters of parkinsonian cases, not all symptoms respond equally to the drug. Bradykinesia and rigidity respond best, while tremor may be only marginally reduced. Problems with balance and other symptoms may not be alleviated atall. Anticholinergics may help control tremor and rigidity. Other drugs, such as bromocriptine, pramipexole, and ropinirole, mimic the role of dopamine in thebrain, causing the neurons to react as they would to dopamine. An antiviral drug, amantadine, also appears to reduce symptoms. In May 2006, the FDA approved rasagiline to be used along with levodopa for patients with advanced PD or as a single-drug treatment for early PD.
In some cases, surgery may be appropriate if the disease doesn't respond to drugs. A therapy calleddeep brain stimulation (DBS) has now been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. In DBS, electrodes are implanted intothe brain and connected to a small electrical device called a pulse generator that can be externally programmed. DBS can reduce the need for levodopa andrelated drugs, which in turn decreases the involuntary movements called dyskinesias thatare a common side effect of levodopa. It also helps to alleviate fluctuations of symptoms and to reduce tremors, slowness of movements, and gait problems. DBS requires careful programming of the stimulator device in order to work correctly.

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anitha
5 years ago
What is the prognosis?

PD is both chronic, meaning it persists over a long period of time, and progressive, meaning itssymptoms grow worse over time. Although some people become severely disabled, others experience only minor motor disruptions. Tremor is the major symptom for some patients, whilefor others tremor is only a minor complaint and other symptoms are more troublesome. No one can predict which symptoms will affect an individual patient, and the intensity of the symptoms alsovaries from person to person.
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anitha
5 years ago
What research is being done?

The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke(NINDS) conducts PD research in laboratories at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and also supports additional research through grants to major medical institutions across the country. Current research programs funded by the NINDS are using animal models to study how the disease progresses and to develop new drug therapies. Scientists looking for the cause of PD continue to search for possibleenvironmental factors, such as toxins, that may trigger the disorder, and study genetic factors to determine how defective genes play a role. Other scientists are working to develop new protective drugs that can delay, prevent, or reverse the disease.
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Dingo.EXE
5 years ago
Wow. Long one anitha. Lovely topic and very informative. Thanks for sharing smiley
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Sonu009
5 years ago
hmm interesting... i dnt knw about it..
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KingFISHER
5 years ago
Its a nice topic. Thank u 4 sharing with Us.
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Hareesh
5 years ago
anitha
lol topic but its gud topic smiley
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Ravikumar08
5 years ago
Nice
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saahir
5 years ago
Thanks for sharing an important physical disorder symptoms at the begining of old age.
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